A practical hybrid of Waterfall-Agile

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Lets recognize the benefits of Agile and Waterfall in their own suitable contexts. Indeed, for NASA space projects, Pharmaceutical clinical trials, and other regulated industries, the “heavyweight” waterfall methods with extensive planning and documentation is the only way to work.

Web and software development, IT implementations, and some research programs are the right environments for the Agile “lightweight” approach. In most cases, using Scrum as the most popular framework, the teams deliver better final results for the customer than Waterfall. This is true for internal projects with internal customers.

External customers however, may not be so open to Agile if they only have visibility to a short term Sprint. They will want to have a quote and schedule not for only two or four weeks, but for the entire project. They have budgets to manage and commercial targets to meet, and cannot simply assume the risk of starting a project without total estimates. There is an upfront level of planning that cannot be skipped.

A generic umbrella methology could take good elements from both, Waterfall and Agile, for a hybrid model better suited for sw development projects with external customers.

After all, methodologies and processes are not the goal themselves, but means to help achiving the goals. If Project work is better done with a mix of various tools and techniques from diverse sources, lets do that. Going even further, as sugested by Adaptive Software Development, the team may change the framework during the project, in a continuous learning process, if that is seen as more efective than following a predetermined generic method.

Nevertheless, the organization and teams require some consistency. Team members cannot waste time learning differents ways of working everytime they start a new project. Likewise, Management need some standardized data to plan and measure performance comparatively. The recommendation would be to change and adapt the methodology at first, but then try to stabilize it for some period before introducing significant changes.

A hybrid generic or umbrella methodology can be presented like the traditional waterfall where the planning is somewhat shortenned but still provides the overall level of requirements and design analysis sufficient to create a complete schedule and budget. Development and test cycles increased in number and each shorter in duration, giving more oportunities for user feedback. Prototyping and small functionality deliveries are close to Scrum Sprints.

Plan with Waterfall, Execute with Agile.

To do…
Rfp, sow, contract, total estimation time, cost
Scrum, sprints regular feedbacks, prioritization of features, replacing Change Requests
Avoid cost date overrun, stop at date or cost, 80/20 P0 features done

PMO Outsourcing

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Options to improve project performance: 1) Develop internal PM competencies, or 2) Contract it to the experts. Contractors/consultants/Outsourcing. This is Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kpo

Outsourcing Pros: No PMO setup time; Best in class tools/ dashboard/ templates; Quality PMs

Outsourcing Cons: Data confidentiality risks (pipeline projects and development plans); Tensions due to having a two tier project teams (external PMs with internal project members)

The key question is: what is it being oursourced/contracted? Is it tactical, methodology/project planning&execution processes,  and PM people (model already popular, loads of PM vendors); or Strategic PMO for Portfolio decision making? I haven’t seen data/examples of this latter case, as the risk of  lossing control of the Portfolio/Strategy seems a serious obstacle. Who is running the company? Portfolio management should always be a core competency of internal Management.

Small PMO steps for success

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Most PMOs either fail to be fully implemented or get reconfigured after 1 or 2 years (Hobbs PMO whitepaper). In a changing/dynamic environment, companies want to see results fast, and would not want to invest long terms in a new PMO unless value is clear.

If you are starting or reconfiguring a PMO, think small and focus on some real value deliverable. Ask PMs and senior managers what is their top issue. Is it a set of standard templates? Assistance with planning and scheduling? Need to have visibility of projects progress and deviations? Be clear and specific, agree deliverables with the PMs/management, and commit to deliver something specific (templates, training session, dashbaord tool, etc) in a short timeframe (3 to 6 months max)

Once people see the PMO actually addressing their needs and meeting their commitments, the PMO will be perceived as something of value and worth of further investment. Small incremental steps reduce the risk of failure when implementing PMOs.

PM Basics | Strategy Support

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In my previous post I explained a basic PMO model based on a central intranet site with info on the project methodology, templates for phase deliverables (Requirements doc, etc), and some templates for Risk&Issues, Status Report, Budget and Schedule.

In this post I look into a simple model of PMO to support senior management at the strategic level. Strategy support can be understood as the layer over individual projects, comprising the projects but importantly also the decision-making on what projects to start, continue or stop; and priorities. Strategic Project Management is Governance, Program Management, Portfolio Management.

The main PMO tool at this level is the Projects/Portfolio Dashboard. This is a high level view of projects focusing on the details and criteria that is relevant to answer questions such as do I get ROI from this project? or is it aligned to my strategic objectives?

The PMO can faciliate senior management in the translation of business strategic objectives into programs. Programs are a set of projects related in producing a particular outcome. If business strategy is to grow market share then a program may help sales team with faster customer data, quotes, etc. If business strategy is to lower costs, a program may try to simplify supplier chain, etc.

PMO attention is now on monitoring and controlling projects progress and deviations. Dashboards give this high level view grouping of projects in programs or portfolios. PMOs can also assist in project selection and prioritization using a set criteria depending on the strategic objectives (ROI, risk minimization, market share, etc) and the company capabilities (what we know and can do).  Normally we have a mix of projects that represent low risk and we know we can dof (low hanging fruit), plus projects that maximise return or chosen metric.

PM Basics | Projects Support

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I wanted to write two posts to explain two types of PMOs: 1) The start-up basic project support PMO, for when we’re starting to do project management and we don’t know how; And 2) the PMO focused at strategic level (portfolio, etc) -.

I think this is a nice simplification of what PMOs can do.

So, let’s see, we are starting to work on projects, or so we think as we have to do some work for customers, we have deadlines and money to spend, but haven’t done project management before… Typical things that we may need are:

  • Set up an intranet site or sharepoint site as the repository of PM docs and info
  • One page to explain the methodology: e.g. Waterfall model such as Requirements, Design, Build, Test, Release; and Gates Review with Signoff process.
  • Standard Templates to document phases’ deliverables (Requirements doc template, Design doc template, etc)
  • Standard Templates for Status Reports, Risks and Issues Log, Budget, Project schedule (standard set of milestones)

With all the above we have achieved that all projects will follow a similar plan and development path. Projects will be planned and thought before we start programming or building. The main PM artifacts (budget, schedule, risks&issues, status report) are a minimum that helps the project to be internally controlled, but also allows to compare vs other projects.

A Lite PMO would be responsible to create the site, the docs and templates, and support PMs in following the set methodology. The PMO could be just one experienced PM, not even necesarily at full time.

However, this is a very simple start. Good project management requires more than just templates. The PMO could also support in any other areas where gaps may exist: e.g. Defining project scope/requirements; Getting good estimates;  Ensuring good comms among team members and externally with stakeholders (meeting agendas and minutes), etc

Design PMO to meet real needs

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I suggest this 3 step approach when setting up a new PMO or developing an existing one:

  1. What is the starting point? Find out about the context, i.e. Organizational structure and culture; and PM maturity (use any maturity model)
  2. What are the expectations? Ask people (PMs, functional managers, execs, etc) what help they need, what are the challenges they face when running projects, what would they like to see changing/improving. Do interviews or surveys.
  3. Focus on real needs and balance. Create a plan to design a PMO that focuses on what is has been asked, not what books or theory say. Is it PM training? A resource management tool? Help facilitating risk management? Monitoring project progress? Ensure PMO responsibilities fit with the available tools, skillsets, processes and structure -or adjust for balance. Will the PMO role fit well in the org culture (the way we do things here) and structure (functional, matrix,centralized, decentralized)?

The major reason that PMOs are shortlived or fail is because they don’t fit in the organization’s context, are too ambitious, impose changes that not all people agree with and lack management support. It is key to start focusing on few but true needs -what people see of value to them, e.g some templates, tools, etc-, with realistic objectives and metrics, and show the delivered benefits asap, so  to position the PMO as delivering Value to the company.

What is PMO ?

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Different PMO books and web sites give different PMO definitions and responsibilities. Because there isn’t a universal PMO model.

People may talk about PMOs based on what they have seen at their company, or some best case example. But each organization is different, and one cannot always re-use the same model in a different environment and context.

But the basics are that organizations want to improve project performance (Truth is that projects generally underperform – late deliverables, cost overrun, don’t meet expectations). If projects by definition are bounded by their particular or unique objectives, scope, resources and timeframe, can they be run as isolated isles of effort, or should projects be coordinated amongst themselves within the same company? How does each project relate to the host organization? How do projects share the common and limited resources in the organization? How do projects and the organization manage conflicts or differences between the projects?

The need for a project management order and understanding, a coordination or standardization of the project management approach within the organization, is what defines the Project Management Office (PMO).


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